Мултимедија

Questionnaire

Questionnaire about Energy Agency QoS

Attendance

mod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_countermod_vvisit_counter
mod_vvisit_counterToday1362
mod_vvisit_counterYesterday2795
mod_vvisit_counterThis Month37436
mod_vvisit_counterTotal6088693

This day: Dec 13, 2018

Renewable energy

The legal framework for renewable energy Republic of Macedonia consists of:

  • Energy Law
  • Strategy for Energy Development
  • Strategy for using renewable energy sources
  • Encouraging the use of renewable energy sources
  • Rules for Renewable Energy Sources
  • Preferential tariffs

 

Hidropower
Hydropower is most exploited renewable source of energy in the Republic of Macedonia. 

The space in the Republic of Macedonia, according to terrain and climate conditions, is destined for utilization the running waters of rivers, by building dams and the formation of larger and smaller accumulations. 

The potential hydropower plants in Macedonia can cover 10% to 20% of total demand for electricity. 

Given the limited natural resources in the Republic of Macedonia, the utilization of hydro potential is vital for the development of the electricity sector and the state as a whole.

 

Big Hydropower plants in Macedonia
With the exception of Kozjak and St.Petka, most of the major HPP in Macedonia have been built in the sixties and seventies of last century, and after nearly forty years of operational work they are revitalized.

 

Candidates for construction of large HPP 
As candidates for the construction of large HPP in Macedonia are those for which there is technical documentation and hydrological bases.

  Basin Pinst. Wgod Investment Time for build
    MW GWh mil € year
St. Petka Treska 36 60    
Boshkov most Radika 68,2 117 70 4
Lukovo Pole and HPP Kozjak Mavrovo 5 163 45 4
Galishte River Crna 193,5 264 200 7
Chebren River Crna 333 340/840 319 7
Gradec Vardar 54,6 252 157 7
Veles Vardar 93,0 300 251 7
10 HPP-Vardar Valley Vardar 176,8 784 486 7
TOTAL   960 2280/2780 1528  

 

HPP Basin No. of aggregates Qinst / aggr. gross  Vol

Pinst

 Wgod Entering the EES
      (m3/s) (m) (106m3) (MW) GWh (година)
Vrben Mavrovo  2 4,6 193 0 12,8 45 1957 / 1973
Vrutok Mavrovo  4 9 574 277 172,0 390 1959 / 1973
Raven Mavrovo  3 10,6 66 0 21,6 53 1959

Tikvesh

Crna reka  4 36 100 272

116,0

184 1966 / 1981
Kalimanci Bregalnica  2 9     13,8 17 2006
Globochica Crn Drim  2 27 110,9 228 42,0 213 1965
Shpilje Crn Drim  3 36 95 212 84,0 300 1969
Kozjak Treska  2 50 100 260 80,0 150 2004
Matka Treska  2 20 28 1,1 9,6 40 2009
TOTAL           551,8 1392  

 

Biomass
Under the term biomass means any organic matter, derived from the flora, with transformation of the visible part of the spectrum of solar radiation by the process of photosynthesis, of animal origin.

The use of biomass does not affect the global warming.

Bioenergy can be a great replacement of fossil fuels. This reduces the amount of greenhouse gases that cause the greenhouse effect.

Biomass can be used directly of indirectly, through its transformation into a solid, liquid or gas fuel.

Biomass is usually domestic product, which does not depend on the    movement of prices globally, and thus represents an independent mode of supply. 

According to the energy balance, biomass accounts for 6% of total primary energy in Macedonia, i.e. 9.5% of total energy consumption. 

Most used resource of biomass in the Republic of Macedonia the wood. Biomass in the form of wood or coal is used almost exclusively in the domestic sector. 

Macedonia has great potential for use of biogas from animal manure for energy purposes and production of biofuel from vegetable crops. 

 

Biofuel
The first biodiesel plant in Republic of Macedonia was opened in 2007. The refinery is owned by private company Makpetrol and has a capacity of 30 thousand tons annually. About production of biodiesel fuel it uses unrefined oil from oil seed rape. At this stage non refined oil is supplied from imports.

Two more factories for production of biodiesel fuel in Macedonia are announced, of which "Blagoj Gjorev” in Veles will perform extraction of oil from sunflower, soybeans and turnips, and plans to have a total raw processing capacity of 20,000 tons per year and produce 13,000 tons of biodiesel fuel.

Consumption of biofuels by 2020 is planned at the level of 10% of consumption in the transport 32, or about 48-56 ktoe / year, which is the level of planned production facilities. These amounts of biofuel will replace the appropriate amounts of consumption of diesel and gasoline fuels in traffic.

Although the technology for obtaining biofuel from second generation are in development (high degree of development), in Republic of Macedonia conditions must be created for their consumption very soon. Namely, the total biomass that is produced  from agricultural  fields, 40% must be returned to the soil, 30% is used for feeding animals or on farms, and the remaining 30% may be used for production of biofuels. 

 

Geothermal energy
Earth is a great reservoir of heat, but most of that power is hidden deep inside her. 

If you go from the surface to the center of the Earth, the temperature increases. 

Geothermal energy of the Earth's surface appears with natural phenomena such as volcanoes, geysers, springs and ponds of warm water. 

Geothermal energy, like hot water and steam coming out of the surface, or located in the upper layers of the earth's   surface, can be used as a source of heat for central heating of buildings, but can also be used for manufacturing of electrical energy. 

The sources of geothermal water with low temperatures are mostly used for heating individual houses for a living. Also, geothermal sources with insufficient temperatures can be used for medical treatment and recreation. 

 

Sun energy
Energy from solar radiation is inexhaustible, free and renewable source of energy that does not pollute the environment. 

The intensity of solar radiation on the Earth's surface depends on the duration of radiation of the sun during the day and the angle of sunlight on the horizontal plane. 

The Sun offers two types of energy: light and heat. 

Devices in which the absorption and transformation of solar radiation into heat is made are called solar collectors. 

Solar collectors, depending on the structure, can be used for obtaining hot water for central heating, or for manufacturing of electrical energy. 

Solar photovoltaic cells are much more favorable way to produce electricity, because it uses no cooling systems, and thus do not produce emissions and noise. 

In Republic of Macedonia the use of solar energy is limited to very few systems for heating water.

According to energy balance, the share of energy produced from solar energy in  total energy consumption amounted to 7,4 GWh, or 0.04%.

In Macedonia there are about 16.000m2 total installed solar surfaces to heat water. Solar collectors used in residential sector, hotels, camps, homes and so on.

Unfortunately, in Macedonia, solar panels are still not used to produce hot water for use in industry. 

 

Solar thermal power plants
These plants primarily use solar energy for heating fluid which continues to be used in classical plant for production of electricity. There are a number of different solutions and different technologies and construction of solar thermal power plants. This type the plants are increasingly used worldwide, primarily in Spain (over 200 MW in operation and over 1 GW under construction) and the U.S. (over 400 MW in plant and close to 100 MW under construction and over 8 GW under planning). Only a few (3-4) are built out of these two countries and several are under construction.

ELEM planned construction of a feasibility study for the project solar thermal power plant technology with installed capacity of 50 MW and annual production of 104 GWh. If the recommendations of the study are positive, there will be announcement for tender to seek a strategic partner for public-private partnership, which would be followed by construction of solar plant in the period after 2020.

 

Wind energy
Wind energy can be used for producing mechanical or electrical energy.

Depending on the season of the year, there can be a change of pace and direction of wind, because wind energy is directly dependent on the energy of the sun.

Wind turbine is a device used to transform wind energy into electricity.

When building a wind turbine and installation of the wind power plant you must beware of the following factors: 

  • Location
  • Wind speed
  • The power of the wind turbine
  • Obstacle in the direction of  movement of wind
  • Health and safety of people
  • The impact of the environment
  • The impact of wildlife
  • Security and Protection 

In the Republic of Macedonia, wind energy is not used to produce electricity yet.

In 2005 a preliminary wind atlas was made, which assess the potential of wind. According to this atlas the most   favorable regions for the construction of windmills can be determine.

During the last years there are many    projects and activities for measuring wind speed at several locations, and there are processes of making a feasibility studies. 

 


Map of best locations for building WPP


Data for the best locations for building WPP

Add comment


Security code
Refresh

Македонски (Macedonian)English (United Kingdom)